Last update

Last update: december 2022


ISBN: 88-88692-09-6  

In post-industrial society, mobility in the working and leisure related activities tends to take on subtle differences as far as place of work, free time, recreation, training and continuing education are concerned. Human mobility is sensitive to change in the organisational plan and logistics of a model which is mainly concerned with demand. The concentration of mobility flows occurs as a result of the devolution of production centres and the consumption of these products is the determining component of mobility, whereas in the past traditional political-administrative boundary trends were the factors which determined mobility. Inequality in human mobility is considered from the point of view of the divide between developed and developing countries, the unskilled/skilled perspective, and the relationships between internal and international flows.

     The fourth volume in the Home of Geography Publication series assembles the research carried out by the IGU Commission on Global Change and Human Mobility (Globility) during the course of meetings organised in three locations that are particularly significant for human mobility: California, where the metaphor "melting pot" has been replaced by the term "cauldron“; South Africa, on the occasion of an IGU Regional Conference, whose position enabled the participation of a consistent number of geographers from developing countries; and, last but not least, Mongolia, where migratory flows have until today continued to modify the ethnic and cultural map of the region.


The New Geography of Human Mobility – Inequality Trends?


Part 1 - The North-South divide and international migration
The Mediterranean region as a crossroads of intercontinental human mobility: the Balearic Islands case. Pere A. SALVÀ TOMÀS, University of Balearic Islands, Spain. 
Why has immigration to Japan continued throughout the recession?: The case of Brazilians. Yoshitaka ISHIKAWA, University of Kyoto, Japan. 
Exporting education : The case of the American University in Cairo. Jeffrey W. LASH, University of Houston-Clear Lake, USA. Human mobility between Asia and the European Union: the case of Mongolia. Armando MONTANARI, University G. d'Annunzio, Italy.

Part 2 - Unskilled-skilled perspective and policy
Skilled migratory regimes: the case of female medical migrants in the UK. Parvati RAGHURAM and Dawn Montiel, The Nottingham 
Trent University, UK. 
Reality in Paradise: A pilot study of Korean immigrants in New Zealand using the 1996 Census. Doo-Chul KIM, Okayama University, Japan, and Hong-key YOON, The University of Auckland, New Zealand. 
Progressive Immigration Policies - elusive in post-apartheid South Africa? Brij MAHARAJ, University of Natal, South Africa. Brain drain from Zimbabwe: profiles and motives of potential migrants. Abel CHIKANDA, University of Zimbabwe, Zimbabwe.

Part 3 - New trends in internal mobility
Changing patterns and new migration trends in Italy. Armando MONTANARI and Barbara STANISCIA, University G. d'Annunzio, Italy. 
Changes in patterns and new migration trends in Latvia. Zaiga KRISJANE and Andris BAULS, University of Latvia, Latvia. The transformation process in mobile livestock keeping and changing patterns of mobility in Mongolia – with special attention to western Mongolia and Ulaanbaatar. Dambyn BAZARGUR, Mongolian Academy of Sciences and Jörg JANZEN, National University of Mongolia, Mongolia.


   This volume assembles the work carried out by the IGU Commission on Global Change and Human Mobility (Globility) during 2002. On the 21st March, Globility, together with the collaboration of W.A.V. Clark, organised a session during the 98th Annual Meeting of the Association of American Geographers, held in Los Angeles (USA). The aim of the session was to examine and discuss with American colleagues the results of the research carried out on the North-South relationships in the Mediterranean area, with reference to the forecast constitution of a Euromediterranean zone of free exchange, the flows from Albania and the interconnection of North-south and South-North flows, as in the case of the Balearic Islands.

   On the basis of the flows of goods and people in the new economic macroregions, the session considered scenarios of human mobility in the different possible economic, social and environmental variables: (i) the effective reduction of North-South imbalance: (ii) the capacity to absorb re-structuring on the part of the territory without compromising its inherent cultural and/or natural environmental features; (iii) the society’s capacity to absorb the effects of re-structuring without compromising lifestyle, customs and habits, cultural characteristics, ethical and religious values as well as the role of the family.

   On the occasion of the Regional Conference of the International Geographical Union, held in Durban (South Africa) on 4-7 August, 2002, Globility organised three working sessions during which there were a dozen contributions from Europe, Africa and Asia. The themes considered referred to the migratory flows activated by the North-South differential, the problems of skilled flows and the new trends of internal migratory flows in relation to the presence of consistent international flows.

   The third occasion was at the international conference “Geographical Study of Central Asia and Mongolia” which took place from 6-11th September 2002, in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia, and which was hosted by the Institute of Geography of the Mongolian Academy of Sciences on the occasion of its 40th anniversary. The conference was structured in two parts: Session I – Physical Geography; and Session II – Economical Geography and Human Mobility. Globility contributed to the organisation of Session 2: “Socio-Economic Geography and Human Mobility”. The session considered the new characteristics of mobility within Mongolia and between Mongolia, Asia and the European Union.

   Cultural collaboration, the existence of trade flows between developed and developing countries, and productive delocalisation favour and simultaneously generate advantages to human mobility. This can take place on the condition that it does not involve delocalisation targeted exclusively at the use of a low-cost labour force, but rather at a procedure of knowledge and technology transfer put into effect to foster the growth of local production systems and markets. Unfortunately, the procedures implemented by developed countries in recent decades have been principally concerned with curbing immigration by rejecting new arrivals and facilitating expulsions, which has led to a reduction in the mobility trend. Therefore, immigrants already present in the country tend to establish roots and reunite with their families, without acting out the tendency to arrive and return as already mentioned. In this way, the number of immigrants increases, especially via illegal channels.

   This volume contributes to the study of the forms of international migration and human mobility linked to the internationalisation and globalisation of the economy, to the new forms of investment and local development, and to the new social and cultural customs prevalently related to consumerism rather than production, and therefore associated with new forms of investment and social customs.


This volume costs €15 for orders from EU countries and €20 for non-EU countries, including postage (standard mail) and packing.

To obtain a copy, please contact Ms. Laura Ayo at the Home of Geography, Rome, at e-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

For more information on Globility, please consult: